Organizations

Last updated 2 months ago

Organizations are official state or state-sanctioned organizations responsible for the internal or external security for a country, including police, army, navy, air force and other security forces, as well as those civilian institutions linked to security forces through the chain of command or other linkages. Organizations refer to any part of the hierarchy of a security force, ranging from a national defense ministry to a police post in a small town. We use the term "Unit" interchangeably with "Organization". Organizations can also be groupings of organizations, including joint operations, task forces or peacekeeping missions.Organizations are official state or state-sanctioned organizations responsible for the internal or external security for a country, including police, army, navy, air force and other national security bodies. Organizations refer to any part of the hierarchy of a security force, ranging from a national defense ministry to a police post in a small town. We use the term "Unit" interchangeably with "Organization". Organizations can also be groupings of organizations, including joint operations, task forces or peacekeeping missions.

Documented in this chapter are a range of different pieces of data about organizations, including:

  • their existence and identity;

  • their position in the hierarchy of a security force;

  • locations of physical infrastructure like posts, bases and camps;

  • their areas of operations; and,

  • memberships in joint operations or international peacekeeping missions.

Summary of organization fields

Name of field

Description

Examples of use

Organization: ID

A unique code assigned to each organization in the dataset

a407be6a-28e6-4237-b4e9-307f27b1202e

Organization: Name

Name of the organization

3 Armoured Division

Organization: Aliases

Other names for an organization, including aliases, alternative spellings and abbreviations

3 Div , 3 Division , Three Division , 3rd Army Division

Organization: Country

ISO 3166 code for the country in which an organization originates

mx , ng , mm

Organization: Classification

Branch of the security services that the organization a part of or general descriptor for the organization

Army,Police , Military , Joint Task Force

Organization: Date first cited

The earliest date that a source shows an organization exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Organization: Start date?

Is the value in Organization: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization was founded (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization (N)?

Y, N

Organization: Date last cited

The most recent date for sourcing the organization's existence, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Organization: Open-ended?

Is the value in Organization: Date last cited the actual date on which an organization was disbanded (E), or can we assume this organization continues to exist after this date to the present (Y), or should it not be assumed that the organization continues to exist after Organization: Date last cited because of poor sourcing or disbandment at an unclear point in time (N)?

Y, N, E

Organization: Parent

The immediate superior organization in the overall hierarchy

301 Artillery Regiment

Parent relationship: Classification

Type of relationships that exists between two organizations

Command , Administrative

Parent relationship: Date first cited

The earliest date that a source shows a parent organization relationship exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Parent relationship: start date?

Is the value in Parent relationship: Date first cited the actual date on which this parent relationship began (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to the relationship (N)?

Y, N

Parent organization: date last cited

The latest date that a source shows a parent organization relationship exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Parent relationship: Open-ended?

Is the value in Parent relationship: Date last cited the actual date on which the parent relationship ended (E), or can we assume this relationship continues to exist after this date (Y), or can we not assume the relationship continues to exist after this date, but the exact end point is unknown (N)?

Y, N, E

Site: Base

A base is a distinctively named building or complex - like a barracks or camp - where the organization is located

Leopard Base , Giwa Barracks , Bonny Camp

Site: Exact Location (Longitude or OSM object Name)

The longitude or OSM object name of the most precise location of a site associated with this organization

30.09716, Giwa Barracks

Site: Exact Location (Latitude or OSM object ID)

The latitude or OSM object ID number of the most precise location of a site associated with this organization

31.3280332, 196204935

Site: Settlement (OSM object Name)

The OSM object name of the city, town or village in which an organization site is based

Maiduguri , Port Harcourt, Francisco Escarcega, Abu al Matamir

Site: Settlement (OSM object ID)

The OSM object ID number of the city, town or village in which an organization site is based

273584290,286989920,769127625

Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM object Name)

The OSM object name of the largest, generally used administrative area of a country (usually admin level 4)

Borno , Rivers , Baja California

Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM object ID number)

The OSM object ID of the largest, generally used administrative area of a country (usually admin level 4)

165475, 2589601

Site: Country

ISO 3166 code for the country in which the organization's site is located

mx, ug, ng

Site: Date of first citation

The earliest citation for the location of a site, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Site: Founding date?

Is the value in Site: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization site was founded (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization site (N)?

Y, N

Site: Date last cited

This field is for the latest citation for the location of a site, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Site: Open-ended?

Is the value in Site: Date last cited the actual date on which an organization ceased to be located at a site (E), or can we assume the organization continues to be at the site past the date up until the present (Y), or is the exact date of departure from a site unclear (N)?

Y, N, E

Area of Operations: OSM object name

The OSM name for the geographical area in which an organization exercises jurisdiction or has operated in any manner

Baja California Sur, Egbado South , Thandaunggyi Township

Area of Operations: OSM object ID number

The OSM ID for the geographical area in which an organization exercises jurisdiction or has operated in any manner

2589611, 4103405

Area of Operations: Country

ISO 3166 code for the country in which an area of operation is located

mx, ug, ng

Area of Operations: Date first cited

The earliest citation for an organization's area of operations, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Area of Operations: Start date?

Is the value in Area of Operations: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization's area of operations started (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization's Area of Operations (N)?

Y, N

Area of Operations: Date last cited

This field is for the latest citation for an area of operations, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Area of Operations: Open-ended?

Is the value in Area of Operations: Date last cited is the actual date on which an organization ended operations in the specified area (E), or should we assume that the organization continues to operate after the last date up to the present (Y), or should not assume the organization continues to operate in the area, but an exact end point is unknown (N)?

Y, N, E

Organization Membership

Organization's participating in internal/national joint operations, international peacekeeping operations, or other multi-unit efforts

United Nations Mission in Liberia , Joint Task Force Operation Restore Order I, Operation BOYONA

Membership: Date first cited

Earliest citation for the location of a membership, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Membership: Start date?

Is the value in Membership: Date first cited the actual date on which a membership was started (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization Membership (N)?

Y, N

Membership: Date of last citation

This field is for the latest citation of a membership, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication

2012-11-23, 2012-11, 2012

Membership: End date?

Is the value in Membership: Date last cited the actual date on which the membership ended (Y), or the latest date a source has referred to an organizational Membership (N)?

Y, N

Organization: Notes

Analysis, commentary and notes about the organization that do not fit into the data structure

In March 1990 the previous Central Regional Military Command based in Taungoo was renamed Southern Regional Military Command, the previous Northwestern Regional Military Command based in Mandalay was renamed as the Central Regional Military Command and a new Northwestern Regional Military Command was created in Monywa

Organization: ID

Description

A unique code assigned to each organization in the dataset.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

a407be6a-28e6-4237-b4e9-307f27b1202e

Guidance on use

This field is created automatically when data is uploaded into the Monitor's online platform.

Organization: Name

Description

Name of the organization.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

3 Armoured Division, 3 Compañía de Infantería No Encuadrada, 7 Military Operations Command

Guidance on use

As different sources will spell an organization's name in different ways the Security Force Monitor works to create a single canonical version of an organization's name based on sources and standardized to match the overall structure of and reporting about the security forces:

Example: Police Divisions are a class of police units in Nigeria. There are over 1000 units of this type nationwide. However, each individual Police Division may not have a citation for their formal name such as Lagos Police Division, but only have a citation (or numerous citations) for the less formal Lagos Division. The Monitor would list the name of the unit as Lagos Police Division with a note about the methodology behind that choice. The less formal Lagos Division name would be entered in the Aliases or alternative spellings field.

Example: Army units of a country may follow a naming convention of a number and then name of unit: e.g. 3 Battalion or 25 Brigade. There may be a unit of which we only have citations for a variation on that: e.g. Fourth Battalion. In this case, the Monitor would list the name of the unit as 4 Battalion with a note about the methodology behind that choice. The Fourth Battalion name variant would be entered in the Aliases or alternative spellings field

Additionally, wherever possible, we will choose the most complete and complex version of an organization’s name that can be evidenced by a source:

Example: 3 Armoured Division would be the entry, rather than the more informal 3 Division (which may have more citations).

The Monitor does not use ordinal indicators like 1st or 3rd in the name of an Organization. Instead these will be listed in the Organization: Aliases field (see below).

The Monitor uses the name in the official (local) language of the country where appropriate and/or possible.

Example: A unit in the Mexican Army would be called by its name in Spanish (10 Regimiento de Caballería Motorizado), rather than the English translation ( 10 Motorized Cavalry Regiment).

In an effort to standardize names across all countries, the Monitor generally uses Arabic numerals in the Organization: Namefield. Where warranted by sources the Monitor will use Roman numerals like V or XI instead of 5 or 11 respectively.

In cases where multiple organizations have the same name the Monitor will distinguish them by adding unique identifying text based on the organization's site or parent.

Example: There are multiple "Central Police Station" formations across Nigeria, some based in the same state. To better distinguish these are separate, distinct units the Monitor added information on where the units were located to the name field for instance Central Police Station (Awka, Anambra State).In Myanmar there have been different units through time both the name Central Regional Military Command. To distinguish them the Monitor added information on when the unit came into existence to the name: Central Regional Military Command (post 199).

Organization: Aliases

Description

Other names for an organization, including aliases, alternative spellings and abbreviations

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

If 3 Armoured Division is used as the canonical Organization: Name of an organization, entries in the Organization: Aliases field may include 3 Div and Three Division.

Guidance on use

Different sources will spell an organization's name in different ways. We choose and record a canonical version of a organization's name in the Organization: Name field. All other spellings that we have found are treated as aliases and stored in this field.

Although we do not use ordinal indicators like 2nd or 10/o in the canonical name we choose for an organization, where a source uses an Ordinal we record it as an alias.

Example: We find a version of the organization name 3 Armoured Division that has an Ordinal indicator: 10/o. Regimiento de Caballería Motorizado. We would record this in the Aliases field.

Organization: Country

Description

ISO 3166 code for the country in which an organization originates

Type of field

Two letter country code

Example of use

mx, ug, ng

Guidance on use

The Organization: Country field identifies the country this organization comes from. All entries in this field are two letter country codes taken from ISO 3166 which can be searched here.

For example, an organization based in Nigeria would have the code ng and an organization based in Brazil would have the code br

Organization: Classification

Description

Branch of the security services that the organization a part of or general descriptor for the organization.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

Army, Ejército, Police, Military, Military Police, Joint Operation

Guidance on use

We use classifications to describe the basic nature of a specific organization and to assist investigations of potential linkages between reports of human rights abuses and the Security Force Monitor's dataset. As alleged perpetrators are usually identified in general terms of "soldiers" and "police" this field is important as a first step to understand potential linkages between organizations, persons and incidents. Organization: Classification values are useful supplements to Organization: Parent and Organization: Membership data we use to connect different units together.

The Organization: Classification field will contain a mix of standard terms and country-specific terms used to describe security force branches. In choosing terms to include in the Organization: Classification field we try to include terms that are used by country experts as well as those that are commons terms. We also try to be economical and create as few, distinct terms as possible.

Example: a standard term we would apply to army units is Army. The equivalent in Mexico would be Ejécito. We would capture both terms in the Organization: Classification field.

Organizations may have more than one classification, usually this will be when an organization can have "generic" and "specific" classifications.

Example: Organizations which are part of the army of a country may be coded as having a classification of Army as well as a classification of Military, whereas organizations which are part of the navy of a country would have classifications of of Navy and Military. For both the army and navy unit their respective classifications are correct, the army and the navy are part of the military. Critically, this enables the Monitor or users of the Monitor's data to properly analyze allegations against "soldiers" and "members of the army" in the country. In the case of "soldiers" this analysis should include every unit with the classification of Military while if there is greater specificity of "members of the army" would mean excluding any organization with the classification of Navy and focusing only on those organizations with a classification of Army.

Organization: Date first cited

Description

The earliest date that a source shows an organization exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Organization: Start date?, Organization: Date last cited and Organization: Open-ended? the field Organization: Date first cited provides data about the time period we can evidence an organization has existed.

The Organization: Date first cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The earliest date found in a source that specifically references an organization; or,

  • The earliest date of publication of sources that make reference to an organization.

For example, if three sources published on 1 January 2012, 1 February 2012 and 1 March 2012 all refer to 1 Motorized Brigade, we will use 1 January 2012 as the Organization: Date first cited. If the source published on 1 March 2012 refers to activity of 1 Motorized Brigade that occurred on 30 June 2011, we will use 30 June 2011 as the Organization: Date first cited.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Organization: Date first cited .

This field is clarified by the field Organization: Start date? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization was founded.

Organization: Start date?

Description

Is the value in Organization: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization was founded (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization (N)?

Type of field

Boolean

Example of use

Y, N

Guidance on use

This is a clarifying field for Organization: Date first cited. Where a source references an organization and specifies the date that organization was created we will enter Y . In all other cases we will enter a value of N to indicate that the date is not a start date, but the date of first citation.

Organization: Date last cited

Description

The most recent date for sourcing the organization's existence, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2013, 2013-12, 2013-12-28

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Organization: Date first cited, Organization: Start date?and Organization: Open-ended? the field Date last cited provides data on the time period we can say an organization has existed.

The Organization: Date last cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The latest date found in a source that specifically references an organization; or,

  • The latest date of publication of sources that make reference to an organization.

For example, if three sources published on 1 January 2012, 1 February 2012 and 1 March 2012 all refer to 1 Motorized Brigade, we will use 1 March 2012 as the Organization: Date last cited. If the source published on 1 March 2012 refers to activity of 1 Motorized Brigade that occurred on 15 February 2012, we will use 15 February 2012 as the value in Organization: Date last cited.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Organization: Date last cited .

This field is clarified by Organization: Open-ended?, which indicates whether the date in Organization: Date last cited is the date an organization was disbanded.

Organization: Open-ended?

Description

Is the value in Organization: Date last cited the actual date on which an organization was disbanded (E), or can we assume this organization continues to exist after this date to the present (Y), or should it not be assumed that the organization continues to exist after Organization: Date last cited because of poor sourcing or disbandment at an unclear point in time (N)?

Type of field

Single choice

Example of use

Y, N, E

Guidance on use

We use this field to clarify the meaning of the date entered in Organization: Date last cited. One of the below values should be chosen:

  • E indicates the exact date this organization was disbanded, or ceases to exist.

  • Y indicates that we assume this organization continues to exist.

  • N indicates we do not assume that this organization continues to exist, but we do not have an exact end date.

Organization: Parent

Description

The immediate superior organization in the overall hierarchy.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

301 Artillery Regiment

Guidance on use

Organization: Parent describes a hierarchical, time-bound relationship between two organizations that are part of the same branch of a security force. The parent is “above” or distinct and separate from the organization in some way. Over time, an organization may have different parents.

Example: In Nigeria the 112 Task Force Battalion had the parent of a parent of 7 Division Garrison between 12 November 2015 and 24 March 2016. The 112 Task Force Battalion was then under the 22 Task Force Brigade from 14 March 2017 to 26 October 2017.

Organizations can also have multiple parent relationships at the same time. For example, sources could indicate an organization has a formal legal parent unit while at the same time a new security body established by decree can also directly order the organization to carry out operations, establishing a second parent relationship.

In our data model Organization: Parent relationships are different from Organization: Membership. Often when there is an "operation" or "joint task force", it may not have have personnel of its own. Rather, personnel from a range of different organizations are assigned to it. Generally, these types of arrangements don’t put the operation “above” the unit in the organizational chart. We outline these types of relationships using the field Organization: Membership, which is documented below.

Parent relationship: Classification

Description

Type of relationships that exists between two organizations.

Type of field

Controlled vocabulary, single choice

Example of use

Command, Administrative, Informal

Guidance on use

Organizations have a Command relationship when the parent organization can order the organization to perform some operational activity. These cover both de jure and de facto relationships between organizations.

Informal relationships occur when there is a relationship outside of the legal or formal structure of security forces and where the exact nature of the relationship is unclear.

Example: Lagos state in Nigeria has a security council which is a meeting of the governor, and the top commanders of police and military units in the state. The security council should be considered its own organization. By law a governor of a state is not in the chain of command for the military or police forces, but the security council membership establishes a relationship between the organizations and meetings often result in new approaches to security being taken, such as different deployments of police. In this case, we could make the determination that an informal relationship exists between the security council and the police and military organizations.

Administrative relationships exist where a formal, non-command relationship exists between organizations, or where an administrative description is more accurate of the relationship between two organizations.

Example: By law the Ministry of Defence in Nigeria provides administrative support to the Nigerian Army, establishing a relationship we could classify as Administrative. The Standards Department of an Army Headquarters might be under the control of the Army Headquarters, meaning the Army Headquarters could order the Department to take some sort of action. This technically means the Department is under the “command” of the Headquarters, but the Monitor would describe this relationship as Administrative because the Department is not in the field conducting operations, it's an administrative organ of the Army Headquarters.

Parent relationship: Date first cited

Description

The earliest date that a source shows a parent organization relationship exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Parent relationship: Start date?, Parent relationship: Sate last cited and Parent relationship: Open-ended? the field Parent organization: Date first cited provides data on the time period we can say one organization is the parent of another .

The Parent organization: Date first cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The earliest date found in a source that specifically references a parent relationship; or,

  • The earliest date of publication of sources that make reference to a parent relationship.

For example, if three sources published on 1 January 2012, 1 February 2012 and 1 March 2012 all say that 3 Armoured Division became the parent of 1 Motorized Brigade, we will enter 1 January 2012 in Parent relationship: date first cited. If the source published on 1 March 2012 says that 3 Armoured Division became the parent of 1 Motorized Brigade on 30 June 2011, we will use 30 June 2011 as the Parent relationship: date first cited.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included Parent relationship: Date first cited .

This field is clarified by the field Parent relationship: Start date? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization became the parent of another.

Parent relationship: start date?

Description

Is the value in Parent relationship: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization became the parent of another, or the earliest date a source has referred to the relationship?

Type of field

Boolean (Yes, No)

Example of use

Y, N

Guidance on use

This is a clarifying field for Parent relationship: Date first cited. Where a source references the parent relationship and specifies the date that the relationship began we will enter Y . In all other cases we will enter a value of N to indicate that the date is not a start date, but the date of first citation.

Parent organization: date last cited

Description

The latest date that a source shows a parent organization relationship exists, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Parent relationship: Date first cited, Parent relationship: Start date? and Parent relationship: Open-ended? the field Parent organization: Date last cited provides data on the time period we can evidence that one organization is the parent of another.

The Parent organization: Date last cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The latest date found in a source that specifically references a parent relationship; or,

  • The latest date of publication of sources that make reference to a parent relationship.

Example: Three sources published on 1 January 2012, 1 February 2012 and 1 March 2012 all state that the 1 Motorized Brigade is under the 3 Armoured Division (which evidences a parent relationship), we will enter 1 March 2012 in Parent relationship: Date last cited.

Example: A source published on 23 July 2017 describes actions undertaken by the 1 Motorized Brigade is under the 3 Armoured Division during riots in 2009, and another source published on 8 June 2008 states that the 1 Motorized Brigade is under the 3 Armoured Division, we would enter 2009 in Parent relationship: Date last cited.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included Parent relationship: Date last cited .

Example: A source published on 23 July 2017 describes actions undertaken by the 1 Motorized Brigade is under the 3 Armoured Division during riots in 2009, and another source published on 8 June 2008 states that the 1 Motorized Brigade is under the 3 Armoured Division, we would enter 2009 in Parent relationship: Date last cited.

This field is clarified by the field Parent relationship: Open-ended? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization stopped being the parent of another.

Parent relationship: Open-ended?

Description

Is the value in Parent relationship: Date last cited the actual date on which the parent relationship ended (E), or can we assume this relationship continues to exist after this date (Y), or can we not assume the relationship continues to exist after this date, but the exact end point is unknown (N)?

Type of field

Single choice (Y, N, E)

Example of use

Y, N, E

Guidance on use

We use this field to clarify the meaning of the date entered in Parent relationship: Date last cited. One of the below values should be chosen:

  • E indicates the exact date one organization stopped being the parent of another.

  • Y indicates that we assume this parent relationship continues to exist.

  • N indicates we do not assume that this parent relationship continues to exist, but we do not have an exact end date.

Site: Base

Description

A base is a distinctively named building or complex - like a barracks or camp - where the organization is located.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

Leopard Base , Giwa Barracks , Bonny Camp

Guidance on use

The Base field adds detail about a site. This field is used to record data about organizations that are located in a distinctively-named building or complex.

For example, 3 Battalion in Nigeria is cited as being based in the Lubanga Barracks in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria.

This field should not be used for anything that matches the name or alias of a organization. For example, North Sector Police Station should not be put in this field if the name of the organization is North Sector Police Station.

Site: Exact Location (Longitude or OSM object Name)

Description

The longitude or OSM object name of the most precise location of a site associated with this organization.

Type of field

First value of a latitude/longitude pair (using EPSG:3857), or an OSM object Name.

Example of use

If used to record an OSM Node Name: Masr Al-Gedida If used to record a latitude: 31.3280332

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision.

Site: Exact Location (Longitude or OSM Object Name) is the first of a pair of values with Site: Exact Location (Latitude or OSM Object ID). It is used to record the most precise location of a site associated with an organization, whether this is an object (node, way or relation) on OpenStreetMap or a pair of geographical coordinates.

  • Where an object for the exact site is present on OpenStreetMap we will enter its name in this field.

  • Where no OSM object exists for the exact site a pair of coordinates will be used, the latitude value recorded in this field.

Site: Exact Location (Latitude or OSM object ID)

Description

The latitude or OSM object ID number of the most precise location of a site associated with this organization.

Type of field

Second value of a longitude/latitude pair (using EPSG:3857), or an OSM object ID number.

Example of use

If used to record an OSM object ID number: 452377264 If used to record a Longitude: 30.09716

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision.

Site: Exact Location (Latitude or OSM Object ID) is the second of a pair of values with Site: Exact Location (Longitude or OSM Object Name). It is used to record the most precise location of a site associated with an organization, whether this is an object (node, way or relation) on OpenStreetMap or a pair of geographical coordinates.

  • Where an object for the exact site is present on OpenStreetMap we will enter its ID number in this field.

  • Where no OSM object exists for the exact site a pair of coordinates will be used, the latitude value recorded in this field.

Site: Settlement (OSM object Name)

Description

The city, town or village in which an organization site is based.

Type of field

Text, OSM object name, first in a pair of values

Example of use

Tampico, Francisco Escarcega, Abu al Matamir

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision. In Site: Settlement (OSM Object Name) we record the name of the OSM object (node, way or relation) that identifies a settlement in which there is an organization site. It could be a city, town or village or other OSM object that denotes a settlement.

Site: Settlement (OSM object ID)

Description

The city, town or village in which an organization site is based.

Type of field

Number, OSM object ID number, second in a pair of values

Example of use

273584290,286989920,769127625

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision. In Site: Settlement (OSM Object ID) field we record the name of the OSM object (node, way or relation) ID number that identifies a settlement in which there is an organization site. It could be a city, town or village or other OSM object that denotes a settlement.

Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM object Name)

Description

The OSM name of the largest, generally used administrative area of a country (usually admin level 4).

Type of field

Text, OSM object name, first in a pair of values

Example of use

Michoacán, Borno

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision. In Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM Object Name) we record the text name of highest level subnational boundary for the country in which the site is located, as found in in OpenStreetMap. Generally, these are relations in the OSM dataset tagged as administrative level 4.

Example: Mexico has both municipios (administrative level 6 in OSM) and states (administrative level 4). For a site based in Mexico, we would record in Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM Name) the name of the administrative level 4 object or the state.

Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM object ID number)

Description

The OSM ID of the largest, generally used administrative area of a country (usually admin level 4).

Type of field

Number, OSM relation ID number, second in a pair of values

Example of use

2340636

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision. In Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM Object ID number) we record OSM object ID number of the highest level subnational boundary for the country in which the site is located, as found in in OpenStreetMap. Generally, these are relations in the OSM dataset tagged as administrative e level 4.

Example: Mexico has both municipios (administrative level 6 in OSM) and states (administrative level 4). For a site based in Mexico, we would record in Site: Top Administrative Area (OSM Name) the name of the administrative level 4 object or the state.

Site: Country

Description

ISO 3166 code for the country in which the organization's site is located.

Type of field

Two letter country code

Example of use

mx, ug, ng

Guidance on use

We identify sites with a number of different levels of geographical precision.The Site: Country field identifies the country in which an organization site is located. All entries in this field are two letter country codes taken from ISO 3166 which can be searched here.

For example, an organization site located in Nigeria would have the code ng and an organization site located in Brazil would have the code br.

Site: Date of first citation

Description

This field is for the earliest citation for the location of a site, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Site: Founding date?, Site: Date last cited and Site: Open-ended? the field Site: Date first cited provides data on the time period for a site's location.

The Site: Date first cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The earliest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Site: Settlement, or failing that, Site: Top Administrative area.

  • The earliest date of publication of any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Site: Settlement, or failing that, Site: Top Administrative area.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Site: Date first cited.

This field is clarified by the field Site: Founding date? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization site was founded.

Site: Founding date?

Description

Is the value in Site: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization site was founded (Y), or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization site (N)?

Type of field

Boolean (Yes, No)

Example of use

Y, N

Guidance on use

This is a clarifying field for Site: Date first cited. Where a source references an organization site and specifies the date that organization site was founded we will enter Y . In all other cases we will enter a value of N to indicate that the date is not a start date, but the date of first citation.

Site: Date last cited

Description

This field is for the latest citation for the location of a site, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Site: Date first cited, Site: Founding date? and Site is Open-ended? the field Site: Date last cited provides data on the time period for a site's location.

The Site: Date last cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The latest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Site: Settlement, or failing that, Site: Top Administrative area.

  • The latest date of publication of any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Site: Settlement, or failing that, Site: Top Administrative area.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Site: Date last cited.

This field is clarified by the field Site: Open-ended? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization was no longer located at this site.

Site: Open-ended?

Description

Indicates whether the value in Site: Date last cited is the actual date on which an organization site was disbanded, the latest date a source has referred to an organization site, and whether can we assume this organization site continues to exist.

Type of field

Single choice (Y, N, E)

Example of use

Y, N, E

Guidance on use

We use this field to clarify the meaning of the date entered in Date last cited. In entering a value for this field we use a variety of factors including: the history of basing for the unit, the overall structure and nature of the security forces, and the frequency of movement of similar units.

The values that can be entered in this field are restricted to the below:

  • E indicates the exact date this organization site was disbanded, or ceases to exist.

  • Y indicates that we assume this organization site continues to exist.

  • N indicates we do not assume that this organization site continues to exist, but we do not have an exact end date.

Area of Operations: OSM object name

Description

A geographical area in which an organization exercises jurisdiction or has operated in any manner

Type of field

Text and numbers, OSM object name, first in a pair of fields

Example of use

Baja California Sur, Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate

Guidance on use

The Area of Operations fields document multiple and concurrent areas of operation of an organization. The value entered in this field is the OpenStreetMap name for the lowest-level formal geographical area that best describes where an organization has operated in some manner.

Area of Operations: OSM object ID number

Description

A geographical area in which an organization exercises jurisdiction or has operated in any manner

Type of field

Numbers, OSM object ID number, second in a pair of fields

Example of use

2589611, 4103405

Guidance on use

The Area of Operations fields document multiple and concurrent areas of operation of an organization. The value entered in this field is the OpenStreetMap object ID number for the lowest-level formal geographical area that best describes where an organization has operated in some manner.

Area of Operations: Country

Description

The country in which an Area of Operation is located.

Type of field

Two letter country code

Example of use

mx, ug, ng

Guidance on use

We identify Area of Operations with two different levels of geographical precision.The Area of Operations: Country field identifies the country in which an organization has operated in some manner. All entries in this field are two letter country codes taken from ISO 3166, which can be searched here.

Area of Operations: Date first cited

Description

This field is for the earliest citation for an organization's Area of Operations, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Area of Operations: Founding date?, Area of Operations: Date last cited and Area of Operations: Open-ended? the field Area of Operations: Date first cited provides data on the time period for which can specify an organization's Area of operations.

The Area of Operations: Date first cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The earliest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Area of Operations.

  • The earliest date of publication for any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Area of Operations.

In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Area of Operations: Date first cited.

This field is clarified by the field Area of Operations: start date? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an Area of Operations started.

Area of Operations: Start date?

Description

Is the value in Area of Operations: Date first cited the actual date on which an organization's Area of Operations started, or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization's Area of Operations?

Type of field

Boolean (Yes, No)

Example of use

Y,N

Guidance on use

This is a clarifying field for Area of Operations: Date first cited. Where a source references an organization site and specifies the date that organization Area of Operations was started we will enter Y . In all other cases we will enter a value of N to indicate that the date is not a start date, but the date of first citation.

Area of Operations: Date last cited

Description

This field is for the latest citation for an Area of Operations, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Area of Operations: Date first cited, Area of Operations: start date? and Area of Operations: Open-ended? the field Site: Date last cited provides data on the time period for which can specify an Area of Operations location.

The Area of Operations: Date last cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The latest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Area of Operations.

  • The latest date of publication for any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Area of Operations.

    .

    In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Site: Date last cited.

This field is clarified by the field Site: Open-ended? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization site was ended, or whether we have reason to assume its continued existence beyond that date.

Area of Operations: Open-ended?

Description

Indicates whether the value in Area of Operations: Date last cited is the actual date on which an organization ended operations in the specified area, the latest date a source has referred to this Area of Operations, and whether can we assume an organization will continue to operate in an area beyond the date of last citation.

Type of field

Single choice from selection

Example of use

Y,N,E

Guidance on use

We use this field to clarify the meaning of the date entered in Area of Operations: Date last cited. In entering a value for this field we use a variety of factors to assess whether an organization continues to operation in any manner in this area beyond the date of the last citation. These include: the history of operations of the organization, the overall structure and nature of the security forces, and the frequency of movement of similar units.

For Example, the New York State police would likely maintain an AOO over all of New York State even if the last citation available to us was from 2015.

The values that can be entered in this field are restricted to the below:

  • E indicates the exact date an organization stops operating in the specified area.

  • Y indicates that we assume this organization continues to operation in the specified area.

  • N indicates we do not assume that this organization will continue to operate in the specified area, but we do not have an exact end date for this.

Organization Membership

Description

Internal/national joint operations, international peacekeeping operations, or other multi-unit efforts that this organization is a part of

Type of field

Text and numbers,.

Example of use

Operación Conjunta Chihuahua, Operation BOYONA

Guidance on use

This field indicates whether an organization has had any memberships or attachments to internal/national joint operations, international peacekeeping operations, or other multi-unit efforts. Generally this means one of two things:

1) Multiple units operate as part of an “operation” focused on a specific mission. 2) Multiple units “lend” or otherwise deploy personnel who operate under the command of a force composition like a "Joint Task Force" or "Operation", which usually has a commander of its own.

Example: soldiers from 1 Division are deployed to the northeast of Nigeria to operate under Operation BOYANA. 1 Division has a commander, but the soldiers as part of Operation BOYANA likely report to and take orders from the commander of Operation BOYANA. When the soldiers are done with their rotation, after several months, they return to their “home unit” 1 Division. So while Operation BOYANA commands some soldiers who are part of 1 Division it doesn’t technically command all of the soldiers of 1 Division (otherwise it would be the parent unit).

We treat task forces, operations, peacekeeping missions and anything else represented in this field as distinct organizations which must have their own record in the system.

Membership: Date first cited

Description

This field is for the earliest citation for the location of a membership, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Membership: Start date?, Membership: Date last cited and Membership: Open-ended? the field Membership: Date first cited provides data on the duration of one organization's membership in another.

The Membership: Date first cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The earliest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Membership

  • The earliest date of publication of any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Membership.

    .

    In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Membership: Date first cited.

This field is clarified by the field Membership: Founding date? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization membership was founded.

Membership: Start date?

Description

Is the value in Membership: Date first cited the actual date on which a membership was started, or the earliest date a source has referred to an organization Membership?

Type of field

Boolean (Yes, No)

Example of use

Y, N

Guidance on use

This is a clarifying field for Membership: Date first cited. Where a source references a membership and specifies the exact date the relationship was established we will enter Y . In all other cases we will enter a value of N to indicate that the date is not a start date, but the date of first citation.

Membership: Date of last citation

Description

This field is for the latest citation of a membership, either through direct reference in the source or by the date of its publication.

Type of field

Date (YYYY-MM-DD), fuzzy

Example of use

2012, 2012-11, 2012-11-23

Guidance on use

Along with the fields Membership: Date first cited, Membership: Start date? and Membership: End-date? the field Membership: Date last cited provides data on duration of a membership.

The Membership: Date last cited field contains a date that is either:

  • The latest date found in any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Membership; or,

  • The latest date of publication of any source that references the values contained in the pairs of fields that record Membership.

    .

    In keeping with all date fields we include in this dataset, where our research can only find a year or a year and a month, this can be included in Membership: Date last cited.

This field is clarified by the field Membership: Open-ended? which indicates whether the date included here is the actual date on which an organization Membership was terminated.

Membership: End Date?

Description

Is the value in Membership: Date last cited the actual date on which the membership ended (Y), or the latest date a source has referred to an organizational Membership (N)?

Type of field

Boolean

Example of use

Y, N

Guidance on use

We use this field to clarify the meaning of the date entered in Membership: Date last cited.

The values that can be entered in this field are restricted to the below:

  • Y indicates that the membership ended on that date.

  • N indicates that the date is the date of last citation for the membership.

Organization: Notes

Description

Analysis, commentary and notes about the organization that do not fit into the data structure.

Type of field

Text and numbers

Example of use

In March 1990 the previous Central Regional Military Command based in Taungoo was renamed Southern Regional Military Command, the previous Northwestern Regional Military Command based in Mandalay was renamed as the Central Regional Military Command and a new Northwestern Regional Military Command was created in Monywa.

Guidance on use

We use this field to record information about the organization that is likely to provide useful context, additional information that does not fit into the data structure, and notes about how decisions were made about which data to include. Any sources used should be referenced in the field.

Contents